Short Abstract of scientific papers



  • 1. Charles S. Piggot:
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1936. Deep core soundings at Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
    Different sediment deposits on each side of the Ridge showed that the Ridge once separated two currents moving in opposite directions. Heavy deposits of volcanic ash on both slopes were dated at 12,000 years ago. Piggot, 1936 (1)
    . . . “It can therefore not be entirely ruled out that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the sample originated, was above sea level up to about ten thousand years ago and did not subside to its present depth until later.” Pettersson, 1944 (2)
    Professor Hans Pettersson comments:“This ash must have originated in enormous volcanic eruptions of the volcanoes in the West Indies or, more likely, on the central ridge of the Atlantic …
    Pettersson also confirms that there have been some findings:
    A weak pointer in this direction was a single link of a thin copper chain dredged up with the mud at a Monaco station southwest of Santa Maria” (an island in the Azores group). (2)
  • 2. Professor Hans Pettersson: “The Ocean Floor”, 1954.
    Deep sea deposits from the “Albatross” Swedish Deep Sea Expedition, 1948.“ “…in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, the Romanche Deep, 7,500 meters at that point. Although the sediment in the upper levels was largely fine grained and intercalated with thin dark streaks rich in organic remains” …Pettersson, 1954 (3)
    Most surprising of all, in the lowest stratum of this sand were found vegetable remains twigs, nuts, and bark fragments of dicotyledonous bushes or trees, bespeaking still more emphatically a continental or island origin. Finally, in the uppermost part of the same core Phleger and his co-workers (of Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, (now in San Diego)) found a “displaced fauna” consisting of benthonic shallow-water foram shells which apparently had lived in depths of 100 to 200 meters.” (Pettersson, 1954).Petterssons conclusions to these findings:
    “… One is at a loss to explain how these products of a coastal shelf and supramarine vegetation could have been carried to the position of the find at lat. 7 29′ N., long. 45 I’ W.” (Pettersson, 1954).
  • 3. Dr. Otto Mellis at Mineralogical Department, University of Stockholm, was also surprised by the layers of sand in core sediments from the Romanche Deep. He concludes that its origin is most likely products of erosion from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, when it was more or less above sea level, and that it was formed as beach sand produced on a coast line, not in the deep ocean. Mellis, 1958 (4).
  • Dr. Maurice Ewing:
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Expeditions to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 1948. Numerous samples of tremolite asbestos were brought up.
    Ewing:”Such rock is generally considered typical of continents and not of ocean basins.”
    Ewing 1948, (5)
    Important also was the discovery of “beach like terraces” beneath two miles of ocean water. Ewing cautiously observed:
    …“Such a theory would require the obvious but almost incredible conclusion that the land has subsided two miles or else the sea has risen by that amount.” (Ewing, 1948).Another significant fact is that the deposits were found to be well-sorted by surf action into the usual pattern of shoreline beaches familiar to geologists. Miller & Scholten, 1966 (7). Ewing´s conclusion was:
    Sometime in the distant past this sand found deep beneath the ocean must have been located on a beach, at or near the surface of the sea.” Ewing, 1949 (6)It became obvious that granite and sedimentary rocks “which originally must have been part of a continent” were abundant (Ewing, 1949).Dr. Bruce Heezen, oceanographer with the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, observed that this type of rock indicates “possible sunken land masses“. Heezen, Tharp & Ewing, 1959 (8)… some (geologists) even conceding that there might be enough continental material (sial) in the mid-Atlantic to make up a landmass the size of Spain. De Camp, 1970 (9).
  • 5. Bruce C. Heezen, Maurice Ewing, D. B. Ericson, and C. R. Bentley:
    Flat-topped Atlantis:…”One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years +/- 900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial conditions and that the seamount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years.
    …”These youthful “guyots” may have originated as volcanoes which were later capped by limestone and more recently have sunk beneath the sea.
    Heezen, Ewing, Ericson & Bentley, 1954 (10).
  • 6. Professor of geology Charles Hapgood:
    Seamounts with the common characteristics of being flat-topped:
    Apparently their tops were made flat by the action of the sea at the time they were at the sea level. Now the flat tops are submerged anywhere from a few hundred feet to three miles below sea level.”…
    Studies of fossilized foraminifera from the tops of some of the seamounts have revealed that they are much younger than the seamounts themselves.
    Hapgood, 1958-1999, (11).
  • 7. T.M. Alves et al., 2004:
    The Atlantis Basin:
    The internal character and geometry of the interpreted seismic megasequences suggest that the Atlantis Basin is filled with a mixture of volcanic, organic, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments …”… “Most seamounts show a characteristic guyot or tablemount morphology demotion at or near sea level.” T.M. Alves et al., 2004 (12).
  • 8. Geologist Marc-André Gutscher:
    Could the island Spartel be the lost Atlantis described by Plato?Part of his conclusion:
    … Although the catastrophic destruction described by Plato is consistent with the geological and tectonic history of the Straits of Gibraltar, this does not imply that Atlantis ever existed. It simply means the account is geological plausible …
    Gutscher, 2005 (13)


  • 9. Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition, Albatros, 1947-1948:Dr. Kolbe says:
    One of the most interesting observations was the unexpected presence of many fresh-water diatoms in certain cores taken by the Albatross parallel to the coastline of Equatorial West Africa at a great distance off the coast.” (c. 900 km).“My own investigations of the numerous cores collected by the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition in the equatorial belt of the Pacific and Indian oceans did not reveal a single specimen of fresh-water species, except in the close vicinity of continents or large islands”. The novelty of the present observations lies in the constant occurrence of fresh-water diatoms in Atlantic deep-sea cores, the large number of individuals, and the relatively great variety of species.

An observation concerning another group of objects of nonoceanic origin may be pointed out:
The regular and rather frequent occurrence of silicified epidermal cells belonging to terrestrial plants (Cyperaceae and Graminear) in many cores … They are to be found in fresh-water sediments and sometimes in near-shore marine deposits but, to my knowledge, are not known in deep-sea sediments. In Atlantic cores they occurred together with Melosira granulate and were almost as common as this form.
Science, vol. 126, p. 1053-54. Kolbe 1957, (14)

  • 10.
    Dr. Malaise theorized that parts of the Ridge must have existed as large islands up to the end of the last Ice Age or later. He also theorized that these landmasses must have had fresh-water lakes in order to account for the existence of fresh-water animals. The species were all recent species, indicating that the fresh-water lake was in existence within the last 10.000 to 15.000 years. Malaise, 1956 (15).


Hans Pettersson says:
A remarkably find by Kolbe in two cores from the equatorial Atlantic is the occurrence of typical fresh-water diatoms in considerable numbers. Since this find was made in localities several hundred miles from the coast of northwest Africa, the origin of these fresh-water diatoms is puzzling.
Pettersson, 1954 (17).

  • 11.
    Prof. N. Zhirov, a Russian chemist, reported in 1970 sand beaches and coral at depths of 2 miles south of the Azores. Confirmed evidence exists that sections of the Mid-Atlantic ridge have been above sea level in the past and [fresh-] water diatoms have been found 2 miles down in the Azores area dated 10,000 to 12,000 BC. Zhirov 1970, (19).

Ice coring

Antarctica core: See detail and scientific sources:

According to the unique sources available to Survey Group Denmark the Atlantic landmass disappeared c. 12.000 BC.

Related to the timescale belowe a huge volcanic eruption happened approximately at this time.

This cataclysm is confirmed by the sudden rise in SO4 by 64,89 and 40,98 for the years 14063 and 14073.

parameter 1: Age in years before 1950

parameter 2: Total sulfate in ppb

parameter 3: Volcanic sulfate based on robust spline analysis

Age in years before 1950

Total sulfate in ppb

Volcanic sulfate based on robust spline analysis














































The time scale is years counted from 1950.

Greenland core: See detail and scientific sources:

The time scale is years counted from 1950.


age (yr) total sulfate (ppb) volcanic sulphate

age (yr)

total sulfate (ppb)

volcanic sulphate


















































































According to the unique sources available to Survey Group Denmark the Atlantic landmass disappeared c. 12.000 BC.

Related to the timescale above a huge volcanic eruption happened approximately at this time.

This cataclysm is confirmed by the sudden rise in SO4 by 86/ 80/ 82/ 66/ 64 for respectively the years 14063/ 14069/ 14074/ 14078/ 14082.

Ashes from volcanic eruptions usually stay in the same hemisphere as the erupting volcano. Only if the volcanic activity is happening close to the equator or is unusually forceful the sulphuric acid (SO4) from it will show in the ice cores in both hemispheres i.e. in the cores from the Antarctic as well as those from Greenland.

Such an extraordinary forceful volcanic activity must have happened in the years 14063 to 14073 (high values of SO4 in both time scales).

History / Culture

The classical philosopher and writer Plato (427 BC-347 BC) has described an oral account in detail about a big island in the Atlantic that disappeared in just one night.
This is Plato´s basic information:
Atlantis was an island –
It was situated in The Atlantic Ocean –
It was bigger than Libya and Asia (Asia Minor) in all –
The royal capital lay on a plain between the mountains and the sea –
The minds of the kings were saturated with truth, gentleness and grandeur –
Atlantis disappeared about 9.000 years ago i.e. to day about 11.500 years ago –

Common features in the cultures on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean indicate a common origin coming from the middle of the Atlantic.
The most obvious common features:

Pyramids –
Flood and deluge legends –
Languages –
Words –
Human types –
Animal life and plant life.

The Greek Historian Herodotus (c.484 BC – c.425 BC) thus living BEFORE Plato (427BC -347 BC), writes in Greek about the Atlantic Ocean, which he calls the Atlantis Sea:

Herodotus: ”History”, book I, 202, Clio:
It is not difficult to recognize the word ”Atlantis” in the text above.

R. Cedric Leonard stresses: “The point here, which cannot be gainsaid, is that Atlantis was known before Plato–so well-known that the sea outside Gibraltar was commonly called the Atlantis Sea in Herodotus’ time. It had acquired that name because Atlantis had once occupied that area.” (27).

Diodorus Siculus, a classical geographer:
“The Egyptians themselves were strangers who in very remote times settled on the banks of the Nile, bringing with themselves the civilization of their mother country, the art of writing and a polished language. They had come from the direction of the setting sun, and were the most ancient of men”. (28).

After Plato died many classical writers have mentioned a disappeared island empire in the Atlantic, among others Aelian in “Varia Historia”, 3 chapter18, Proclus, Greek philosopher, Marcellus, Roman consul, Diodorus Siculus, Greek historian (see above), besides Crantor, Plutarch, Pausanias, Theophrastus of Lesbos, Theopompus of Chios, Timagenes, and Aelianus..


This legend from the Azores serves as a representation for the big amount of mythological material in many languages regarding a former ocean island in the Atlantic:

O reino da Atlantida (The Realm of Atlantis)

In the Atlantic Ocean opposite the Pillars of Heracles, where Jupiter is situated today, was the mighty kingdom of Atlantis. Within Atlantis were ten kingdoms that were all under the supervision of Poseidon. The people of Atlantis behaved in an exemplary manner; they were not corrupt. All of Atlantis was like a pleasurable dream.

The earth produced valuable trees. There were mines with precious metals. Because of the incredible climate there was a fertile agriculture. Houses and palaces pleased the people. There were roads and bridges and the economic freedom left room for many artists and philosophers.

Everyone enjoyed the richness of their kingdom, not forgetting the act of war.

It was not hard for the atlanteans to defend their realm against intruders envying them, and wanting to conquer mighty Atlantis. Thus they made themselves ready to defend their territory, their dignity awoke, and for the first time they felt like expanding their territory. The mighty army of Atlantis spread all over the known world and conquered nations and peoples. Agitated with their triumph they led vanity and pride rule and were attracted to corruption, a luxurious life and disrespect towards the gods.

Zeus called the gods for a meeting to punish the degenerated people of Atlantis. As a consequence of this the earth shook violently and the sky went dark as if it was night. Forests were burned down and the ocean demanded soil and swallowed towns.

The kingdom of Atlantis and its wealth disappeared for ever into the grandeur of the ocean. Nine of the highest mountains of this beautiful kingdom were not flooded. Later on minor islands and remains of this continent were populated. They are called the Azores and because of their mild climate and scenic beauty they remind us of Atlantis.

Translated from the Portuguese into Danish by Danilo; from the Danish into English by Carsten Skaarup.


(1) Piggot, Charles S., “Core samples of the ocean bottom,” Smithsonian Report for 1936, No. 944, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, p. 207-16, 1937.

(2) Pettersson, Hans, “Atlantis och Atlanten”Albert Bonniers förlag, Stockholm, 1944.

(3) Pettersson, Hans: “The Ocean Floor”, p. 95-97. Yale University Press, New haven, 1954.

(4) Mellis, Otto: “Die Sedimentation in der Romanche-Tiefe (Ein Beitrag zur Erklärung der Entstehung des Tiefseesandes in Atlantischen Ozean)“, Geologische Rundschau“, 1958, p. 218-234.

(5) Ewing, Maurice: “Exploring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,” The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. xciv, No. 3, September 1948.

(6) M. Ewing: “New discoveries on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge”, National Geographic Magazine, vol. xcvi, no 5, November 1949, p. 611-640.

(7) Miller, J. P. & Scholten, R: “Ocean, Lakes, and Shoreline Features,” Laboratory Studies in Geology, No. 225, 1966.

(8) Heezen, B.C., Tharp, M., Ewing, M: “The North Atlantic”, Washington D.C., 1959.

(9) de Camp, L. Sprague: “Lost Continents,” Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1970.

(10) Ocean Bottom Investigations and their Bearings on Geology. Geologiska Föreningen, Stockholm. March/April 1957.

(11) Zhirov: “Atlantis,” Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970.

(12) B.C. Heezen, M. Ewing, D.B. Ericson & C.R. Bentley: “Flat-topped Atlantis, Cruiser, and Great Meteor Seamounts” (abstract), Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 65, 2, 1954, p. 1261.
(13) Charles Hapgood: 
“Path of the Pole”, 1958, 1970, 1999, p. 241-242. Adventures Unlimited Press, USA.

(14) T.M. Alves, T. Cunha, S. Buriak, A. Volkonskaya, J.H. Monteiro, M. Ivanov:

Surveying the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Atlantis Basin, North Atlantic Ocean (36ºN)”, Marine Geology 209, 2004, p. 206.

(15) Marc-André Gutscher: “Destruction of Atlantis by a great earthquake and tsunami? A geological analysis of the Spartel Bank hypothesis.” Geology, vol. 33, issue 8, 2005, p. 685-688.

(16) R.W. Kolbe: “Fresh water diatoms from Atlantic deep-sea sediments”, Science, vol. 126, 1957, p. 1053.

(17) Malaise, Rene: ”Sjunket land i AtlantenYmer, Stockholm, 1956.

(18) R.W. Kolbe: “Turbidity currents and displaced fresh water diatoms”, Science, vol. 127, 1958, p. 1504-1505.

(19) Pettersson, Hans: “The Ocean Floor”, p. 108, Yale University Press, New Haven 1954.

(20) Plato: “Critias”, 360 BC. Benjamin Jowetts translation, Random House, N.Y. 1937.

(21) Alexander Braghines: “The shadow of Atlantis”. 1940.

(22) F.W. Farrar: “Families of Speech: Four Lectures Delivered Before the Royal Institution of Great Britain.” March 1869. Logmans, Green & co., 1870. Digitized Jan 29, 2007. 192 pages.

(23) Kenneth Katzner: “The languages of the World,” 2002, p. 58-59. Routledge.

(24) Marius Frandsen: “Atlantis – en realitet eller en utopi”,1969, p.31, Strubes, København, Denmark.

(25) Professor Anders Retzius in Smithsonian Report, 1859 p. 266.

(26) Professor Franz Unger: “Die versunkene Inseln Atlantis”, 1860, p. 18, W. Braumüller. Originally from the University of Michigan. Digitalized 29. March 2006.

(27) R. Cedric Leonard: “Pre-Platonic Writings Pertinent to Atlantis.”

(28) Frank Joseph:”The Atlantis Encyclopaedia”, p. 127, 2005, Career Press, NJ 07417, USA, 2005.

Copyright: Carsten Skaarup